Masks like Comedy and Tragedy (i.e. Janus masks or Melpomene and Thalia), which have come to stand as symbols of theatre, were used as early as 5 B.C. in Greek theatre, allowing actors to better broadcast their characters' emotions across the amphitheaters and to assume a larger number of roles. General Pershing, in explaining the importance of humanitarian services, said, "Morale is a state of mind upheld by entertainment." In entertaining the American Army: the American stage and lyceum in the World War (1921), James Evans and Gardner Harding explain that when General Pershing asked for entertainers from home to travel overseas, "the theatrical world stood ready to go to France en masse and now." This ferver combined with the army's incredibly strict regulations inspired the creation of The Over There Theatre League, which set up a practical plan for ascertaining the exact requirements of the Army and helped actors to negotiate bureaucratic red tape. The first volunteers for the Over There Theatre League left home on July 31, 1918, and the last on May 15, 1919. The artist, Justin Marie Georges Dorival (1879-1968), trained in Paris at the National School of Decorative Arts. Before the war, he was a well-known poster artist for tourism and advertising industries. During World War I, Dorival designed posters for the French Red Cross, the YMCA, and the Women’s Union of France. Throughout his career as a graphic artist, he signed his work “Geo Dorival.”
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